The place of music in human life
The planet we live on is filled with a variety of sounds. It is the rustle of foliage, a thunderclap, the sound of the surf, the whistling of the wind, animal howling, the melodies of birds ... All these varieties were also heard by ancient people. He could repeat sounds, thereby attracting birds and animals to him.
Only sounds are not music yet. Since ancient times, people have understood how diverse sounds are. But only when he began to combine them to express his own thoughts and feelings in them, and music arose.
What is musical sound? How does a person understand music? Why does it affect a person so much? One of the branches of physics helps to answer all these difficult questions.
Sound is transmitted in the air in the form of waves. This means that sound waves propagate from an object that makes a sound on all sides. The vibrations that are transmitted through the air allow our eardrums to vibrate, which is why we hear sound. Sound is the propagation of numerous mechanical vibrations in gases, liquids and solids, which are perceived by the ear of humans and animals.
The sound wave moves away from the sound source, and air particles pushing each other alternately compressing and discharging it. This is how vibration occurs. What are the differences between musical and non-musical sound? We perceive some kind of note at the moment when a series of contractions and discharges is replaced in the next sequence. When the sequence of these vibrations is not regular, then we hear noise.
A person can easily distinguish between high and low sounds. One of the most basic properties of sound is the height, which depends on the number of vibrations per second. The more vibrations, the higher the sound. The frequency of sound vibrations depends on the elasticity, length and thickness of the vibrating body: a string, a metal plate, a column of air, etc. The main sound used for tuning all instruments is the A sound of the first octave. When the orchestra is tuned, it is played by an oboe. The sound that the oboist produces is equal to four hundred and forty vibrations per second.
When playing the piano, you can easily hear that the next sound is higher than the previous one. This sequential rise in sound is called a scale.
It is impossible not to notice that every eighth sound is similar to the first sound, respectively, the ninth - with the second, and the tenth with the third, etc. It depends on the number of vibrations in the eighth sound, which is twice as many as in the first. Therefore, musical sounds are combined into octaves. There are eight sounds in the octave, of which seven are different in pitch and the eighth is a repetition of the first, but already at a new height. For example, L of the first octave is equal to four hundred and forty vibrations per second, and already L of the second octave - eight hundred and eighty vibrations per second.
Even ancient scholars studied musical intervals. They looked at the similarities between individual sounds from a mathematical point of view. In music, such units of measurement of intervals as semitone and tone were introduced. Intervals are subdivided into consonants and dissonances. Consonances sound calm, harmonious; and dissonances are much sharper, more intense, requiring a transition to consonance.
The sounds of the interval, depending on the number of vibrations, affect the psyche of people. Sound waves may coincide when a certain sound is an octave interval with this sound, or it may not coincide when there is a small interval between sounds.
Musical sounds are usually combined into sound systems. Even the largest civilizations and national cultures have created their own sound systems.For example, the works of such great composers as Bach, Beethoven, Tchaikovsky, Shostakovich, created at completely different times, but written in the same sound system. While ancient Greek and Chinese music was created in a different sound system.
The number of sounds and the ratio between them within one octave is a scale. For example, the basis of Chinese, Mongolian, Scottish, and also Irish music is a scale of five sounds (do-re-mi-sol-la-do), in which there are only intervals of one and a half tones. In the Indonesian sound system, an octave is divided into twenty-two parts.
The sound range of music sounding in Europe consists of seven steps, three of which are stable, and, accordingly, four are unstable. Each piece necessarily ends with steady steps that give the impression of completeness.
The two main modes of classical music - major and minor, differing in color of sound. Frets - sounds of different heights, some of which are stable, while others are unstable. Different historical epochs and national musical cultures gave birth to peculiar modes. Major and minor can be determined by a triad, which is formed by stable scale steps. A major contains two tones between two steps, and a minor one contains one and a half tones. The scale can be played from any step of the scale, which will sound in a certain key, which is determined by the first step of the scale - the tonic. The major scale from sound to is called C major, and the minor scale from the same note is called C minor. The key reflects the pitch of the sounds in the row.
Any piece of music is written in a certain key, and there are twenty-four of them that reflect the nature of the piece. For example, poetic works of authorship are composed in the key of A minor. Johann Sebastian Bach was the first composer to compose a number of works of various moods in all keys. Many musical figures have felt the images that arise when using them.
For many composers, certain tones were associated with specific activities or even colors. So, Beethoven, compared the tonality of B minor with black, while in Rimsky-Korsakov, all the keys were in color.
Another property of a musical sound is its duration. This is the time during which a sound is heard, depending on the duration of the oscillations over a certain period of time. Notes showing the pitch and duration of the sound are required to record the piece. The pieces are performed at a different pace, showing his character. If you change the tempo in any direction, it will spoil the meaning of the piece. So, the funeral march cannot be performed at a fast pace. But Saint-Saens in his creation, when characterizing the turtle, used the cancan melody from Offenbach's operetta, performed at a very slow pace. As a result, one and the same melody amazes the listener, creating a different impression. Kankan shows delight, and "Turtle" - joy.
One of the properties of sound is its strength, that is, loudness, which depends on the range of the sounding body - the amplitude of vibrations. With an increase in amplitude, the strength of the sound increases and vice versa.
A person begins to pick up a sound signal when he reaches a certain point, and is perceived by the ear. In the event that the sound does not reach the required limit, it will not be heard. This limit is characterized by the lower threshold of hearing. There is also a higher (pain) threshold of hearing. This is the maximum point of sound, above which a person simply does not perceive the difference in sound strength, while experiencing a painful sensation. Excessive sound volume has a negative effect on the perception of music, causing fatigue. Very often, modern pop performances, stunning in their sound, resort to the use of such music.
Because how the work is performed, loudly or quietly, depends what impression it will make on its listeners. In music, they often resort to a gradual increase in sound and attenuation, a return to the original sound.
The last property of musical sound is timbre. It characterizes the type of sound and the color of the sound and depends on the number of vibrations, the number of overtones and the order of their occurrence. By timbre, you can distinguish sounds of the same pitch that sound on different instruments or sung in different voices.
But the timbre and the strength of the sound depend on what the musical instrument is made of. It is not for nothing that in our time violins are considered unique by Italian masters, who have found the perfect combination of individual parts of the violin and the singing properties of wood.
A person is already accustomed to what a violin, flute, piano looks like and never thinks about why the instruments have such a shape. This is due to the laws of sound.
All instruments have a vibrator and resonator. So, in a violin, the vibrator is the string, and the body is the resonator. For example, a lyre has the same vibrator as a violin - a string. But the arc of the lyre - the resonator did not give a strong sound when played and could not provide the instrument with a strong sound. As a result of changing requirements for sound, the lyre could not last long. The guitar, like the violin, is a stringed instrument. But her timbre and sound power are completely different, which is associated with the structure of her body.
The orchestra is represented by several instruments from each group - bowed, woodwind and woodwind. This is done to create resonance in the sound in the instruments. Large resonators are used to produce low sounds, and small ones for high sounds. Therefore, the bow bodies increase in size: violin, viola, cello, double bass.
A person picks up sound with the help of the organ of hearing, which consists of the outer, middle and inner ear. The eardrum, which connects the ear canal to the middle ear, vibrates with sound waves.
The middle ear consists of a malleus, incus, and stapes, which transmit sound waves through the middle ear cavity. The stapes leading to the inner ear are connected to the membrane of the oval window, and the malleus is connected to the eardrum. The spirally coiled tube is the inner ear, which is located in the temporal bone and consists of a bony labyrinth. A tube that forms two and a half turns is called a cochlea, inside which there are three channels, separated by thin membranes, filled with liquid. Two of them are connected at the apex of the cochlea, while the others are directed into the middle ear cavity. The third channel is also filled with liquid and contains the true hearing receptor - the organ of Corti.
It consists of five rows of cells with hairs stretching along the cochlea spiral along its entire length. The organ of Corti contains twenty-four thousand of these cells. The integumentary membrane covers the hair cells, in which impulses occur that travel along the fibers of the auditory nerve.
For sound to be heard, the sound waves must pass through the ear canal, causing the eardrum to vibrate. These vibrations pass along the chain of the auditory ossicles, which reduce the amplitude of the vibrations, but increase their strength. The vibrations are transmitted to the fluid filling the cochlear canals, as a result of which the membrane on which the hair cells are located is vibrated. All this leads to friction against the integumentary membrane. As a result, the cells become irritated and affect nerve impulses in the processes of the auditory nerve, which lie at the base of each hair cell.
Human hearing is able to distinguish such properties of sound as pitch, volume, timbre.
The membrane fibers in different parts of the cochlea curls have different lengths. They are long at the top and short at the base of the spiral, like the strings of a harp or piano.Therefore, sounds of a certain height vibrate only in a certain area of the membrane and hair cells are excited only in this area.
The greatest irritation of hair cells is caused by loud sounds, forming a large number of impulses per second, transmitted to the brain along the auditory nerve.
Corti's organ can be damaged by strong continuous sound. The lower part of the snail is damaged by high sounds, and the upper part by low sounds. For example, people who constantly listen to loud high-pitched sounds, subsequently damaging cells at the base of Corti's organ, develops deafness.
Nerve impulses that occur with specific sounds have a frequency equal to the frequency of these sounds. The brain distinguishes the pitch of sounds by the nerve fibers that bring the impulses and by the frequency of the impulses themselves. Nerve fibers connect to specific areas of the auditory cortex, with the result that some brain cells are responsible for the perception of high tones, while others - for the perception of low tones.
The color of the sound, which makes it possible to distinguish a particular note played on different instruments, depends on the number and nature of the overtones that irritate the hair cells along with the main irritation. Therefore, differences in timbre are recognized by the location of several irritated hair cells.
The human ear can perceive sounds with a frequency of up to twenty thousand vibrations per second. The human ear is especially susceptible to sounds with a frequency of one thousand to two thousand vibrations per second. Comparing the energies of sound and light waves, which are needed for sensation to arise, it can be seen that the ear is many times more sensitive than the eye. There are eight full octaves in music, and fifty-seven musical sounds. These sounds can only be played on one instrument - the organ.
The human ear is an effective hearing aid. In its development, it has reached such a level that a further increase in sensitivity would be unnecessary. In the case of the highest sensitivity of the ear, even the movement of air molecules would be detected, a hissing or buzzing would be heard.
It is with such a high sensitivity of the hearing aid, which distinguishes the shades of sound, that the enormous effect that music has on a person is connected.
The ear tends not to get tired. Even with strong noise, it does not lose hearing acuity, and fatigue disappears in a few minutes. When one ear is exposed to strong noise, the other also gets tired and loses hearing acuity. This fatigue is partly due not to the ear itself, but to the brain.
The center of hearing, where all sound information is accumulated, is located in the temporal lobe, above the ear. The sensation of sound creates irritation upon impact. If the center of hearing is damaged, it will impair hearing in both ears.
Musical abilities of a person.
Music is the art of sounds. Features of sound that cannot be explained by the laws of physics and mathematics have always been the focus of musicians' attention. The sounds of music are capable of evoking emotions in their listeners that are beyond the power of any other art form.
Contemporaries of the composer Scriabin, describing his playing on the piano, spoke of his indescribable sound. He knew the secret of sounds perfectly. Subsequently, none of the pianists could reproduce them like that. Chopin, listening to the rough play of his students, reacted very sharply, running out of the room.
Numerous shades of sound are subordinated to the main thing - the expressiveness of the music.
Expressiveness is the quality through which a musician conveys his ideas and feelings.
It is the expressiveness that makes a person worry that is able to distinguish musical sounds from each other.
Musical sound is a sound that conveys emotions and relationship with the surrounding world, thereby distinguishing itself from non-musical sounds.Therefore, words such as "sacrament" or "mysteriousness" of sound have the right to exist and carry a certain meaning.
Is it possible to create music with a computer? Maybe. There are whole programs based on musical theory that can write a wonderful piece, but it will not touch the soul of its listener. After all, not a single computer program can create something new, putting its soul and feelings into the work, as a person.
The human organ of hearing cannot perceive the strength of sound or the frequency of vibrations in the same way as the necessary devices do, but a person is able to distinguish various shades in music without error.
An ear for music is an important sign of a person's musicality. On the one hand, the ear for music is a person's susceptibility to music, and on the other hand, it is the ability to reproduce the pitch of musical sounds. There is also absolute pitch, which is manifested in a person's ability to recognize the pitch of individual sounds. Even the most famous composers and musicians don't always have perfect pitch. Sometimes, those who are not able to accurately repeat the melody simply do not own their vocal apparatus. There are also no people who do not have an ear for music, who are not able to perceive musical works, those who would not be affected by music. Music fans are not born, they become. Those people who do not listen to music deprive themselves of the opportunity to discover something new, still unknown.
Even in ancient times, there was military music that performed two tasks: raising the fighting spirit of soldiers and controlling them during battles. She helped establish communication, give various signals and commands.
At that time, there were no signal means of communication. In battle, only the voice of the trumpet could be heard. Only a few short sounds made it clear that it was necessary to rebuild, go on the offensive or retreat.
During long campaigns, soldiers were always helped by a marching song or drumbeat. There were no military marches before, and the musicians played different instruments for the warriors: flute, Carthaginians, zither, trumpet and horn. Music lifted the spirit and gave confidence.
Music has the ability to unite, express the joy of victory, it is easier to survive the grief for the departed.
Military music became more popular at the time of the emergence of the mercenary army and the emergence of the military training system. Music gained the greatest popularity during the era of the Great French Revolution, when famous composers composed music for military bands.
Music was given great importance in the ranks of the Russian army. Russia at one time participated in numerous wars. Even famous military leaders talked about the role of music in battle.
Currently, there is no military action, but music plays a big role in various ceremonies, drill exercises and parades.
The sounds of the national anthem also have a huge impact on a person. The hymn sounds solemn, evoking a sense of pride and conducive to uniting people.
Most of the information a person receives with the help of sight. Sound is mechanical waves that propagate in a medium, and light is electromagnetic. Even in ancient times, there were attempts to combine sound and visual images that affect a person. Great celebrities have noted that the primary colors are proportional to the basic intervals between the notes of the octave. Our celebrities have pointed to the possibility of creating a color-musical device that produces both audible and visible music. At the heart of the light sound, it was necessary to take the correspondence of musical tones and certain colors. Later, there were attempts to create a work using color and images.A specific rhythm of music corresponds to a specific rhythm, the dynamics of a light spot; and a certain volume of sound is the corresponding size of the light spot. Such effects of color music are widely used in rock music, enhancing the impact on the human psyche.
Loud music has a negative effect on a person, from which he becomes aggressive. Nowadays, modern groups gathering entire stadiums also affect the psyche of people.
Calm music has a wonderful effect on the psyche and is used in the treatment of various nervous disorders. Slow, quiet music, which promotes concentration of attention, has a good effect on a person. Even research has shown that those who listened to balanced music reacted to danger much faster than those who listened to energetic music.
The relationship of music with a person is clearly visible, but the influence from physiology and psychology has not yet been fully studied.